I believe that medical practices and beliefs reflect a human society's principal values and worldview. In a similar manner, public health regulations illustrate the assumptions and goals of the state. My research investigates medicine and public health to measure social values, state-society relations, and political priorities in twentieth-century China. My current manuscript launches this investigation in during the War of Resistance against Japan (1937-1945) when gender roles and expectations of both men and women were rapidly changing. Dramatic changes in health policy and practice during this period reflect the sea changes in Chinese society that shaped twentieth century China in fundamental ways.